Прочее Anna 30.07.2019 45

Dora Maar In the shadow of Picasso. Part II

Dora found a new studio for Picasso on the Grand Augustine street, 7. As they said, it was this attic that was described by Honore de Balzac in "The Unknown Masterpiece". There Picasso painted his monumental canvas “Guernica”, which adorned the Spanish Pavilion of the World Exhibition in Paris. In addition, it was in the etudes to “Guernica” that the heads of weeping women first appeared. The big canvas 3.5 by 7.8 meters hardly fit in the studio, it had to be tilted, and the light was dim, but nothing could impede Picasso. He worked like a possessed man, spilling a stream of ideas, emotions, anger, and pain onto the canvas. Dora was next to him all 24 days and photographed each stage of the painting. Perhaps the lamp in the center of the picture appeared there under the impression of Picasso from Dora's photo lamps, which she worked with. After the beginning of the occupation of France by the Germans in 1940, Picasso had to make a difficult decision - to leave or to stay. He was invited to the United States, to Mexico, and nevertheless, he chose Paris. Of course, Dora was next to her deity - despite her supposedly Jewish background and left-wing political views, Picasso's reputation protected both. There were constant reports of friends abandoned in concentration camps or executions for participating in the Resistance. Paris plunged into an atmosphere of fear, cold and hunger. As legend has it, during a search at Picasso’s, a German officer saw a postcard with “Guernica” and asked: “You did this?” “No,” answered Picasso, “you did it.”

Shortly after the end of Guernica, Picasso returned to the theme of a weeping woman, which hooked him deeply. It can be stated with confidence that the gallery of “weeping women” is not only the portraits of Dora Maar but also the internal emotional experiences of Picasso himself, caused by the war, thrown out onto the canvas through his reflection in his beloved woman. Suffering and despair are not only and not so much Maar herself. A favorite symbol of the surrealists - the eye – Picasso had it rather as a symbol of involuntary pain and horror.

Picasso helped the resistance movement, although he was forbidden to exhibit, and there was almost no sales. He wrote poems, created portraits and busts of Dora, and even composed a surrealist play “Desire, Caught by the Tail”. The tense years of the war could not but affect the relationship of Dora and Picasso. In 1943, Picasso became acquainted with Françoise Gilot, a young artist who was 40 years younger than him, and began to give her unequivocal signs of attention. Dora was desperately jealous, it drove her crazy, but Picasso knew how to convince - after another scandal there was a lull. One day, Dora in a fit of temper told Picasso: "As an artist, you can be extraordinary, but from a moral point of view, you are not worth anything." For about two years, Pablo tested Dora for strength - he moved her to an apartment nearby. The unhappy waited for a phone call for days - sometimes Picasso invited her to the studio to draw another picture.

In 1945, after a severe mental crisis, Maar got into a psychiatric clinic of Jacques Lacan, a famous Freudian psychoanalyst. Lacan, who was in artistic circles, was also a collector, and he also treated many of his artist friends - it is known that Picasso was also his patient. Therefore, Dora fell into reliable hands. After leaving the clinic, Dora and Picasso occasionally encountered for a year, and then the artist interrupted their communication.

He left the former Muse a house in the provencal town of Menerbes (glorified in Peter Meyl's book One Year in Provence many years later), several paintings and deep emotional wounds. In the end, Dora returned to the previous circle, where she communicated with her old friends and customers, including patron Marie Laure de Noy and surrealist writer Liz Deharm. She found solace in the Catholic faith, and wrote poetry. In the 1950s she had a sweetheart friend, a writer James Lord, although no one could replace Picasso. “All I had was left of him. Everything I owned is filled with him. I could not remember a single moment, not a single place in which Picasso would not be. Everything told me about him”.

In the end of her life’s journey, Dora Maar returned to photography, drew pictures and even exhibited in Paris and Valencia just two years before her death. She died in Paris on July 16, 1997: The Muse of Picasso was 89 years old. After the death of Dora Maar, her paternal relatives tried to claim an inheritance, however, according to them, the French General Directorate of Heritage (La Direction General des Patrimoines) took over the management of the property of the deceased. Since the heirs were found, they were offered 7 million euros of compensation, specifying the requirement to no longer claim the property of Maar. There was what to pay for. Dora carefully preserved everything related to her beloved Picasso - any little things, little notes, napkins, his ceramics, small souvenirs and paintings, her own negatives and the old camera with which she conquered Paris.