Personal communication forms a person as an individual, gives him the opportunity to acquire certain character traits, interests, habits, inclinations, learn the norms and forms of moral behavior, determine the goals of life and choose the means of their realization.
There are two types of communications - role and personal. In role communication, people act together as representatives of the same social community. For example, the role of the teacher will communicate with the student, the plant director with the head of the shop, a coach with an athlete. Role communication is governed by the rules adopted in society and the specifics of treatment.
Personal communication more freely, not connected by public regulators and limiters, depends on the individual characteristics of the persons who have come into contact, and the relationship between them. Examples of personal communication friendly conversation, the relationship between members of one family.
Both types of communication can be open and closed. There are mixed types of communication. This is a “one-sided questioning” and, which is more common in the relationship between a teacher and a student, “unwillingness to take into account other people's circumstances”. However, effective communication is successful only when both parties are open.
With open communication, both sides do not hide their point of view and are ready to take into account the position of the opponent. In this case, psychological compatibility arises. Compatibility is not the same. It can occur between people of different gender, age, temperament, between individuals who occupy different social positions. But compatibility requires mutual interest and obligatory mutual compliance.
Diverse in content, purpose, means of communication also performs a specific function in the mental development of the individual. For example, material communication allows a person to receive the objects of material and spiritual culture necessary for a normal life, which, as we found out, act as a condition for individual development.
Cognitive communication directly acts as a factor of intellectual development, as communicating individuals exchange and, therefore, mutually enrich with knowledge.
Conditional communication creates a state of readiness for learning, formulates the settings necessary to optimize other types of communication. Thus, it indirectly contributes to the individual intellectual and personal development of a person.
Motivational communication is a source of additional energy for a person, a kind of “recharging” it. As a result of such communication, new interests, motives and goals of activity are acquired, a person increases his psycho-energetic potential, developing his own.
Active communication, which we define as interpersonal exchange of actions, operations, skills and abilities, has a direct developmental effect for an individual, as it improves and enriches his own activity.
Biological communication serves the self-preservation of the organism as the most important condition for the maintenance and development of its vital functions.
Social interaction serves the social needs of people and is a factor contributing to the development of social life, groups, groups, etc.
Direct communication is necessary for a person in order to apply and be brought up as a result of the wide use in practice of data from birth, the simplest and most effective means and methods of learning: conditioned reflex, vicar and verbal.
Mediated communication helps to improve the means of communication and improve on the basis of their ability to self-education and self-education of a person, as well as to consciously control the communication itself.
Thanks to non-verbal communication, a person gets the opportunity to develop psychologically even before he learned and learned to use speech (about 2-3 years). In addition, in itself, non-verbal communication contributes to the development and improvement of the person’s communicative abilities, as a result of which he becomes more able to interpersonal contacts and opens up wider opportunities for development.
As for verbal communication and its role in the psychological development of the individual, it is difficult to overestimate. It is associated with the assimilation of speech, and it, as we know, underlies the whole development of a person, both intellectual and personal.
Therefore, it can be concluded that one of the important conditions for personal development is communication with the outside world and the relationships that a person establishes in the process of this communication.